examples of independent and dependent variables in healthcare

Test your understanding with the scientific method quiz. How many minutes or hours of television a person watches is the dependent variable. Its not possible to randomly assign these to participants, since these are characteristics of already existing groups. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. Retrieved March 2, 2023, The value of a dependent variable depends on an independent variable, so a variable cannot be both independent and dependent at the same time. You want to know which brand of microwave popcorn pops the best. variable, or in the form (x2 + y2 ) dx dy 2xy = 0, where x is the dependent variable and y is the independent variable. Is the variable something that cannot be changed but that is not dependent on other variables in the experiment? All articles are edited by a PhD level academic. By manipulating the level of an independent variable and observing corresponding changes in a dependent variable, scientists can gain an understanding of many phenomena. Each group receives chemotherapy treatment three times a week for two months, except for the no-treatment group. In quantitative research, its good practice to use charts or graphs to visualize the results of studies. 8600 Rockville Pike By Kendra Cherry Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "What Are Independent and Dependent Variables?" You want to find out how blood sugar levels are affected by drinking diet soda and regular soda, so you conduct an experiment. Other variations of an experiment might include having multiple levels of the independent variable. The independent variable in your experiment would be the brand of paper towel. The relationship makes sense and identifies the independent variable as phone use and the dependent variable as sleep quality. At the end of the survey, the screen shows one of the photos of the female. Accessibility In the early days of airbags, automobile companies conducted a great deal of testing. Reviewers ensure all content reflects expert academic consensus and is backed up with reference to academic studies. Statistical models will estimate effect sizes for the independent variables. Published on An example of a dependent variable is how tall you are at different ages. So, they use Photoshop to manipulate the same image of a female by altering the color of her hair: blonde, brunette, red, and brown. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors. Your email address will not be published. Because the researcher controls the level of the independent variable, it can be determined if the independent variable has a causal effect on the dependent variable. Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. An ordinal variable can also be used as a quantitative variable if the scale is numeric and doesnt need to be kept as discrete integers. Copyright 2023 Helpful Professor. Instead, you can create a research design where you compare the outcomes of groups of participants with characteristics. The dependent variable is the variable that is being measured or tested in an experiment. The .gov means its official. Design approaches to experimental mediation. Do not confuse it with a "control variable," which is a variable that is purposely held constant so that it can't affect the outcome of the experiment. government site. ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/independent-and-dependent-variable-examples-606828. The amount of salt added to each plants water. Disclaimer. You can also apply multiple levels to find out how the independent variable affects the dependent variable. It is called independent because its value does not depend on and is not affected by the state of any other variable in the experiment. Note that any research methods that use non-random assignment are at risk for research biases like selection bias and sampling bias. A dependent variable is what changes as a result of the independent variable manipulation in experiments. Be careful with these, because confounding variables run a high risk of introducing a variety of. They randomly select 1,000 people that are relatively similar in terms of their physical health. Saul Mcleod, Ph.D., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years experience of working in further and higher education. Both the independent variable and dependent variable are examined in an experiment using the scientific method, so it's important to know what they are and how to use them. There are several actions that could trigger this block including submitting a certain word or phrase, a SQL command or malformed data. Salt tolerance in plants cannot be measured directly, but can be inferred from measurements of plant health in our salt-addition experiment. In a representative example: Several crash cars were outfitted with an airbag, and an equal number were not. The independent variable is one that the researchers either manipulate (such as the amount of something) or that already exists but is not dependent upon other variables (such as the age of the participants). Independent variables also have different levels. In this case, we must state what we mean by the terms media violence and aggression as we will study them. Revised on In an experiment to determine how far people can see into the infrared part of the spectrum, the wavelength of light is the independent variable and whether the light is observed is the dependent variable. J Exp Soc Psychol. Independent variables are the variables that the experimenter changes to test their dependent variable. Operationalization has the great advantage of generally providing a clear and objective definition of even complex variables. The researchers at the lab have their usual test volunteers sleep in individual rooms every night for one week. You can usually identify the type of variable by asking two questions: Data is a specific measurement of a variable it is the value you record in your data sheet. Come up with a. Here the independent variable is the dose and the dependent variable is the frequency/intensity of symptoms . It is the main point of focus in the experiment whereby researchers are looking to find a cause to. Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. This can provide very valuable information when studying just about any subject. The temperature and light in the room the plants are kept in, and the volume of water given to each plant. So, they train a group of teachers in three different teaching styles: teacher-centered, where the teacher tells the students all about critical thinking; student-centered, where the students practice critical thinking and receive teacher feedback; and AI-assisted teaching, where the teacher uses a special software program to teach critical thinking. The presence/absence of the chemical is the independent variable. _________________________________________________________, D.V. Although there are many variations of the experiment, generally speaking, it involves either the presence or absence of the independent variable and the observation of what happens to the dependent variable. Sensors on the crash dummy skulls allowed for a scientific analysis of how much damage a human skull would incur. These variables are created when you analyze data, not when you measure it. You can think of independent and dependent variables in terms of cause and effect: an independent variable is the variable you think is the cause, while a dependent variable is the effect. The health of the rat (whether it lives and can reproduce) is the dependent variable. To ensure cause and effect are established, it is important that we identify exactly how the independent and dependent variables will be measured; this is known as operationalizing the variables. Revised on December 5, 2022. 2022 Aug;27(5):436-446. doi: 10.1177/17449871211051566. There is a standard method for graphing the independent and dependent variable. No. I.V._____________________________________________________________, D.V. You manipulate the independent variable (the one you think might be the cause) and then measure the dependent variable (the one you think might be the effect) to find out what this effect might be. 2023 Dotdash Media, Inc. All rights reserved. You record brain activity with fMRI scans when participants hear infant cries without their awareness. In an experiment, the researcher looks for the possible effect on the dependent variable that might be caused by changing the independent variable. Accessibility The independent variable is the brand of paper towel. At the end of one year, the health of all participants is assessed, using blood pressure and cholesterol level as the key measurements. This makes sense, but: Example: Your test score affects how long you sleep. SPICE (Setting, Perspective, Intervention/phenomenon of Interest, Comparison, Evaluation) Appropriate for : evaluating the outcomes of a service, project, or intervention In this study, the independent variable is the concrete mixture, and the dependent variable is the amount of weight at collapse. Some examples of variables that you may need to control include: Temperature Time of day Lighting Stress Noise or distractions Which specific variables need to be controlled for will vary tremendously depending on the research project at hand, so there's no generic list of control variables to consult. Independent and Dependent Variable Examples, How to Tell the Independent and Dependent Variable Apart. Bevans, R. The independent variable is the variable that is being manipulated, or the one that varies. People who exercise regularly sleep better at night. Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. Are researchers trying to identify how the variable influences another variable? Chemotherapy and Cancer A hospital is investigating the effectiveness of a new type of chemotherapy on cancer. Subject variables are characteristics that vary across participants, and they cant be manipulated by researchers. Epub 2021 Oct 25. Any measurement of plant health and growth: in this case, plant height and wilting. The key word here is similar.. You have three independent variable levels, and each group gets a different level of treatment. Brain morphology, harm avoidance, and the severity of excessive internet use. Independent and Dependent Variables: Differences & Examples The independent variable is the variable the experimenter manipulates or changes, and is assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable. Doing this helps ensure that the experiments know exactly what they are looking at or manipulating, allowing them to measure it and determine if it is the IV that is causing changes in the DV. The presence/absence of the chemical is the independent variable. This article begins by defining the term variable and the terms independent variable and dependent variable, providing examples of each. In this experiment, we have one independent and three dependent variables. In these cases you may call the preceding variable (i.e., the rainfall) the predictor variable and the following variable (i.e. Educators, social scientists, and parents were shocked at how graphic games were becoming. They enlist the cooperation of over 120 gym rats that work out 5 days a week. Based on your findings, you can estimate the degree to which your independent variable variation drives changes in your dependent variable. So, they create three bridge molds that are identical in every way. J Health Care Chaplain. Epub 2016 Mar 24. Of course, they would prefer that consumers enter and exit quickly to increase sales volume and profit. The only way to do that is to manipulate the independent variable and observe any changes in the dependent variable. The health of the plants (height, amount and size of flowers and fruit, color) is the dependent variable. Next, they randomly select shoppers on Saturdays and Sundays to eat for free in one of the three rooms. Your dependent variable is math test scores. December 2, 2022. Other 5th grade classrooms will not listen to any music during their lessons and exams. At the end of three months, the muscle mass of all participants is measured. Careers. MeSH Here, the amount of chemical would be the independent variable and the rat health would be the dependent variable. Dr. Drew has published over 20 academic articles in scholarly journals. For example, if we want to explore whether high concentrations of vehicle exhaust impact incidence of asthma in children, vehicle exhaust is the independent variable while asthma is the dependent variable. *Note that sometimes a variable can work as more than one type! Sometimes varying the independent variables will result in changes in the dependent variables. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning; 2017. Weiten, W. Psychology: Themes and Variations, 10th ed. You can apply just two levels in order to find out if an independent variable has an effect at all. Taylor, J. M., & Rowe, B. J. A company that specializes in essential oils wants to examine the effects of lavender on sleep quality. Studentsshould always cross-check any information on this site with their course teacher. The independent variable and dependent variable are used in a very specific type of scientific study called the experiment. Is the variable manipulated, controlled, or used as a subject grouping method by the researcher? To gather information about plant responses over time, you can fill out the same data sheet every few days until the end of the experiment. Our website is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Independent vs. You could also choose to look at the effect of exercise levels as well as diet, or even the additional effect of the two combined. The independent variable is the teaching method, and the dependent variable is performance on the critical thinking test. Before You want to know which brand of fertilizer is best for your plants. The independent variable (IV) in psychology is the characteristic of an experiment that is manipulated or changed by researchers, not by other variables in the experiment. In some experiments, there may only be one level of an IV. For example, gender identity, ethnicity, race, income, and education are all important subject variables that social researchers treat as independent variables. Example: How long you sleep (independent variable) affects your test score (dependent variable). If you are having trouble identifying the independent variables of an experiment, there are some questions that may help: Researchers are interested in investigating the effects of the independent variable on other variables, which are known as dependent variables (DV). Please include what you were doing when this page came up and the Cloudflare Ray ID found at the bottom of this page. Read our, Introduction to Psychology Research Methods, Internal Validity vs. Types of data: Quantitative vs categorical variables, Parts of the experiment: Independent vs dependent variables, Frequently asked questions about variables. It then proceeds to describe and discuss synonyms for the terms independent variable and dependent variable, including treatment, intervention, predictor, and risk factor, and synonyms for dependent variable, such as response variables and outcomes. 1. Can a variable be both independent and dependent? You have three independent variable levels, and each group gets a different level of treatment. If the independent variable affects the dependent variable, then it should be possible to observe changes in the dependent variable based on the presence or absence of the independent variable. The company approaches several gyms near its headquarters. A group of teachers is interested in which teaching method will work best for developing critical thinking skills. An operational definition describes exactly what the independent variable is and how it is measured. Confounding variables lead to bias, or a factor that may cause an estimate to differ from the true population value. In these experimental studies, the independent variable was graphic video games, and the dependent variable was observed level of aggression. Expected to influence the dependent variable, Doesn't change as a result of the experiment, Can be manipulated by researchers in order to study the dependent variable, Expected to be affected by the independent variable, Expected to change as a result of the experiment, Not manipulated by researchers; its changes occur as a result of the independent variable. A large food company is considering entering the health and nutrition sector. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! For example: In a study of how different doses of a drug affect the severity of symptoms, a researcher could compare the frequency and intensity of symptoms when different doses are administered. External Validity in Research, Forming a Good Hypothesis for Scientific Research, Scientific Method Steps in Psychology Research, Psychology Research Jargon You Should Know, The Definition of Random Assignment According to Psychology, How the Experimental Method Works in Psychology, How Social Psychologists Conduct Their Research, Experimental Group in Psychology Experiments, Types of Variables in Psychology Research, How to Write an APA Method Section of a Research Paper, Wait List Control Groups in Psychology Experiments, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox, Types of variables, descriptive statistics, and sample size. By varying the level of the independent variable and observing associated changes in the dependent variable, a researcher can conclude whether the independent variable affects the dependent variable or not. The dependent variable is the biomass of the crops at harvest time. Are you ready to take control of your mental health and relationship well-being? Published on from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/types-of-variables/, Types of Variables in Research & Statistics | Examples, , the terms dependent and independent dont apply, because you are not trying to establish a cause and effect relationship (. In general, experiments have these three types of variables: independent, dependent, and controlled. One is called the dependent variable, and the other is the independent variable. Content is fact checked after it has been edited and before publication. Use this list of questions to check whether youre dealing with an independent variable: Check whether youre dealing with a dependent variable: Independent and dependent variables are generally used in experimental and quasi-experimental research. A group of health scientists decides to conduct a study to determine if taking vitamins improves health. Example: How long you sleep (independent variable) affects your test score (dependent variable). Example: Your test score affects how long you sleep. All we have to do is find 90 people that are similar in age, stress levels, diet and exercise, and as many other factors as we can think of. During the first three months of the academic year, they randomly select some 5th-grade classrooms to listen to Mozart during their lessons and exams. Dave Cornell (PhD) and Peer Reviewed by Chris Drew (PhD), Definition of Independent and Dependent Variables, Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables, 1. A variable that is made by combining multiple variables in an experiment. Scientists want to know what causes changes in the dependent variable. National Library of Medicine After a certain period of time, perhaps several months, the effects on cognitive performance could be measured. You vary the room temperature by making it cooler for half the participants, and warmer for the other half. At the outset of an experiment, it is important for researchers to operationally define the independent variable. Revised on We could measure blood pressure, or the amount of the stress hormone cortisol in their blood, or by using a paper and pencil measure such as a questionnaire that asks them how much stress they feel. When running a study or analyzing statistics, researchers try to remove or account for as many of the confounding variables as possible in their study design or analysis. At the same time, software on the computer that utilizes the computers camera is measuring each males pupil dilation. This helps you to have confidence that your dependent variable results come solely from the independent variable manipulation. If you determine the substance is necessary for proper nutrition, a follow-up experiment might determine how much of the chemical is needed. So, the researcher goes to a nearby university and randomly selects both male and female athletes from several sports: track and field, volleyball, basketball, and football. Each of these is its own dependent variable with its own research question. Choosing which variables to measure is central to good experimental design. Blazing Angels or Resident Evil? In an experiment on the effects of the type of diet on weight loss, for example, researchers might look at several different types of diet. In your research design, its important to identify potential confounding variables and plan how you will reduce their impact. Groups with no rank or order between them. The research participants are randomly assigned to either receive the independent variable (called the treatment condition), or not receive the independent variable (called the control condition). An example of a dependent variable is depression symptoms, which depends on the independent variable (type of therapy). Does this variable get measured only after other variables are altered? In research, variables are any characteristics that can take on different values, such as height, age, temperature, or test scores. Its called independent because its not influenced by any other variables in the study. Applying causal mediation analysis to personality disorder research. The company has prepared three versions of their crust that vary in crunchiness, they are: a little crunchy, very crunchy, and super crunchy. If you have the variables in the wrong order, the sentence won't make sense. Can graphic video games be a force for good? Quantitative Data Analysis 101: Methods, Techniques & Terminology Explained. If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the Cite this Scribbr article button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator. 3. One common way of assessing cognitive performance in laboratory rats is by measuring the amount of time it takes to run a maze successfully. Verywell Mind's content is for informational and educational purposes only. The company wants to know which version is the strongest. Your independent variable is a subject variable, namely the gender identity of the participants. The brand of popcorn is the independent variable. For example, in an experiment looking at the effects of studying on test scores, studying would be the independent variable. Does practicing meditation reduce stress? Social class has a significant effect on IQ scores. Does this variable come before the other variable in time? The independent variable is the level of crust crunchiness, and the dependent variable is how much it was liked.

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